Transformational changes in battery technologies are critically needed to enable the effective use of renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind, to allow for the expansion of the electrification of vehicles. For these applications, batteries must store more energy per unit volume and weight, and they must be capable of undergoing many thousands of charge-discharge cycles. Developing high-performance batteries, which relies on material breakthroughs, is critical to meeting these requirements. For instance, to enhance the performance and lifetime of batteries (specifically, lithium-ion batteries), the formation of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer, and the degradation mechanisms in battery electrodes, oftentimes at the nanometer scale, must be better understood. Advanced state-of-the-art in-situ techniques and operando spectroscopic characterization tools will be critical to understanding battery behavior and could help address all the major issues of lithium batteries and beyond. Especially with the development of the third generation synchrotron source, the in-situ study of the cell during discharge and charge using X-ray techniques could provide insight into the structural changes at the atomic level. This area will conduct the research on rechargeable Li-ion battery and energy storage systems to help develop the next generation of advanced batteries, which are needed to expand the electrification of vehicles and grids.